How much gold in the world

As of today there is 244,000 tons of Gold in the world ! (187,000 metric tons generated in the past plus 57,000 metric tons of underground reserves). China, Australia, and South Africa produced the most of the gold. In 2016, the United States ranked fourth in the world in terms of production.

All the gold discovered so far, would fit inside a cube that is 28 meters broad on each side.


Image source

However, it is also an essential industrial metal. That is used in computers, communications equipment, Spacecraft, jet aircraft engines, and a host of other items. The majority of the gold produced today is used in the production of jewellery.

How much is all the gold in the world worth today?

In many ways, It is a peculiar metal. For thousands of year’s, it has been widely valued. But until the introduction of electronic devices in the last few decades, it had few practical uses. There wasn’t much use for it in terms of technological progress. As it was more pliable than iron and heavier than copper. Because of its look and rarity, it has always had a high value.

Because the metal is one of the very few metals that can be found in its purest form. Early civilizations had an easier time obtaining it. But it also highlighted how precious it is today.

Due to its scarcity compared to iron or aluminium. Two significant industrial metals. They are also among the most prevalent elements on Earth. It has traditionally held a high value. Due to an increase in mining. The supply and demand of the metal have both increased over time. And, the price of the metal has continuously increased. Fantastic news for the gem investors. Since it’s one of the few commodities that almost ensures a good return on your investment.

When it comes to tracking the prices. We employ automated methods that we’ve modified. To keep track of the overall value of all the gold on earth:

$9,259,653,407,799.18 spot price is $1,793.91 at the time of writing

A Brief History

Many years ago. The human race was first introduced to the metal. When a child came across a shining pebble in a brook.

Gold nuggets were the first to be found. Because it was first discovered in its natural state. In streams all over the world. There is a phrase that says “Gold is where you find it”. First metal known to early hominids, without a doubt.

As a result, the metal has become a part of every culture. To work and play with it was a pleasure thanks to its brilliance, Natural beauty, Shine and exceptional malleability and resistance to corrosion.

When the metal was first used as a currency. It was associated with the gods, the rulers, and their exaltation. Almost instinctively, humans place a high value on the metal. Connecting it with the cultural elite, power, and beauty. In addition, because of the widespread distribution of the metal. We discover that this similar thinking about gold can be observed throughout ancient and current civilizations around the world.

Money in Ancient Greece was made out of gold. Which was a precious metal. Plato and Aristotle both wrote about the metal. They had beliefs about its beginnings. When the Greeks began mining for gold. In the Mediterranean and Middle East. Around 550 B.C. In ancient times, the metal was thought to be a particularly dense combination of water and sunlight. Which was understandable given most of it was found in streams.

The amazing history

There’s always been a link between gold, beauty, and power. During ancient times. The metal was used to make shrines and idols (such as the Golden Calf). The metal was also used to make plates, cups, vases. Containers of all types, as well as jewellery.

Excavations in Turkey have uncovered the “Gold of Troy” treasure hoard. Which dates from the period 2450-2600 BCE. A time when the metal was highly valued but not yet a form of currency. To the contrary, it was held by the wealthy and well-connected and used to embellish sacred sites.

Humans have always valued the metal, even before it was used as currency. There was a lot of work put into it, and that shows. Since the dawn of money in the form of gold coins. Around 700 B.C. Gold prospecting has been a global endeavour for thousands of years.

Current Major Sources

Most of the time, the metal is found in its pure, original form. Gold-bearing minerals include sylvanite and calaverite. In quartz veins or placer stream gravel. The metal is frequently discovered embedded in the mineral. It’s mined in South Africa, the United States (Nevada, Alaska). Russia, Australia, and Canada, among other countries.

How much undiscovered Gold are there?

Since its discovery. Almost 244,000 metric tons have been found. (187,000 metric tons historically produced plus current underground reserves of 57,000 metric tons). China, Australia, and South Africa produced the most. United States placed fourth in production last year. According to the World Gold Council.

What is white gold?

It is an alloying metal. Meaning, it is composed of pure yellow gold mixed with alloy metals that are silvery-white in colour, such as palladium and silver

Why is it mixed with alloy metals?

For additional durability and strength. Pure gold can be combined with harder metals in each gold jewellery piece. This is due to the fact that pure gold is a soft metal on its own. Pure gold would readily bend if it weren’t for the tougher alloy metals that make it rigid.

In any of these variations. Gold alone would be excessively soft. Regardless of whether the jewellery is made of yellow, rose, or white gold.

Additionally, in white gold. The silvery alloys aid to achieve the ideal white colouration.

What is Fool’s Gold?

Fool’s Gold is one of three minerals that can be found in the earth’s crust. Pyrite is the most commonly misidentified mineral as gold. Chalcopyrite and aged mica can also appear gold-like. Gold, on the other hand, gouges and indentations like soft lead. If you scrape a piece of unglazed porcelain with actual gold, you’ll get a golden yellow stripe. In addition to the white stripe, pyrite and chalcopyrite will leave a dark green to black streak.

With the symbol Au and atomic number 79. The metal is one of nature’s higher-numbered elements and one of the most expensive.

Gold prospecting

In prospecting, you’re looking for new gold mines. There are a variety of methods that are utilized. Depending on the type of deposit sought. The prospector’s financial resources available. In several industrialized countries. Placer prospecting has become a popular outdoor recreation activity. Despite its economic roots.

Rats: Everything you need to know about them.

Things You Didn’t Know About Rats.

You may be suprised to find out that, just like humans, rats are ticklish, have belly buttons and pass gas!

Rats may not be a usual choice of pet. This might be due to the fact that rats are often associated with dirt and carrying diseases! Whilst this may be true. If you have a Rat as a pet, its personal hygiene is typically on the same level as your domesticated pet cat or dog.

Although rats dont have the best image, they are pretty cool and interesting animals. Skeptical? Scroll down to see some amazing facts about them


Did you know ?

  • According to Chinese astrology, you would be a rat if you were born in 1912, 1924, 1936, 1948, 1982, 1972, 1984, or 1996. That makes you fashionable, resourceful, and fast-witted.
  • More than 20,000 rats live in Karni Mata, a temple in north west India. Here the rats are worshipped with many believing that when they die, they will come back as rats
  • The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) commonly known as the Norwegian rat, and its Asian relative, the Black Rat (Rattus rattus). Have been distributed almost all over the world. This is because of their ability to stow themselves in boats
  • Ancient Romans thought it is a strike of good luck for a white rat to cross your path. While a black rat was considered a bad omen.
  • Rats pass on several diseases. Including viral hemorrhagic fever, plague, Weil’s disease, and Q fever, potentially fatal to humans.
  • Queen Victoria had a professional ‘Rat Catcher’ one of whom was called ‘Jack Black’.

Life facts about rats

  • A female rat has the ability to reproduce from around 3-4 months old and does so around 6 times a year. Within each litter there is around 5-10 pups although they can have up to 12!
  • Rats are omnivores and like to eat meat and vegetables. Known as opportunistic eaters, they tend to eat what ever they can get their hands on, including their own poo!
  • A new study conducted at national health institutes showed that limiting rat calorie consumption extends the lifetime of rats.
  • A rat may drop to 50 feet and land unhurt.
  • Rats use their tail to keep cool by expanding and contracting the blood vessels in their tale to control body temperature.
  • Outie or Innie? Rat has no gallbladder or tonsils but does have a belly button
  • Their teeth grow around 5 inches per year meaning they have to chew on things to wear them down. No wonder there notorious for knawing through all sorts of materials!
  • Certain rats can swim, some for over a mile and, hold their breath for around 3 minutes at a time. Also, its no myth, some can quite easily make their way up your toilet pipe!
  • Some rats, such as the sumatran bamboo rat, can weigh up to 8.8 pounds and measure approximately 20 inches.

Interesting Facts about Rats.

  • Rat’s prefer snuggling into little dark spots like your elbow’s crook.
  • Rats are social creatures and dont like being alone.
  • They sleep side by side and even groom each other.
  • They like to be tickled and can laugh, just like humans!
  • While humans go through baby teeth and adult teeth. Rats have only one set of teeth to last them their whole life.
  • A kangaroo rat may live without any water for an average of 10 years.
  • The Antarctic is the only uninhabited continent for rats.
  • Rats are known as “rodents”. Since they belong to Rodentia’s scientific order.
  • Rat have such a good smell. They are useful in detecting landmines. In diagnosing diseases like tuberculosis.
  • Bubonic diseases, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, and hantavirus. Are some of the pathogenes that rats transfers to human.
  • Bush rats are Australia’s most frequent indigenous rat species.
  • A rat can pick up nearly 1 pound more than its normal body weight.
  • In 1961 rats from France were some of the first animals to be put in space.
  • Rats have exceptional memories, and after learning to navigate once. They can save a path.
  • Rats’ jaws. constructed like an alligator. Can exert up to 7,000 pounds per inch.
  • There are more than 51 species of rats found.

Other facts you didn’t know about

  • Rat is a generalist species that can grow in various environmental circumstances. Adapt its diet to resource requirements..
  • A clump of tails can be collected and interspersed with chemicals. Chemicals like tree sap or gum. This prevent them from leaving. This horrific event is referred to as a king of rats.
  • The teeth of rats are robust. It can gnaw through glass, cinder block, wire, aluminum, and lead.
  • Following a minor electric shock, rats have the unusual ability to restart their heart.
  • A rat pack is called a mischief.
  • The rats are blind in color and have fragile vision.
  • Alberta, Canada, is the largest region with inhabitants. (4.25 million inhabitants) reported to be free of rats.
  • Some rats love to play hide and seek !
  • From a flat surface a rat can jump three feet in the air.

Rats are pretty cool animals and, in some ways, are just like us humans! Its not suprising now that some people keep them as pets!

Featured image: Green photo created by wirestock –

Tornado: Nature’s Most Violent Storms

Tornadoes occur in many places all over the world and are one of the most common, destructive forces of nature. Typically occuring in the spring and summer months, Tornados have certain characteristics. They consist of a violently rotating column of air which touches the ground and is often attached to a thunderstorm. Most tornadoes can have wind speeds of up to 300 mph and cause enormous destruction and devastation.

Greg Stumpf

What causes tornadoes?

In warm, moist air, thunderstorms form in advance of the cold eastwards. Often these storms create giant grass, high gusts, and tornadoes. Across winter and early spring, tornadoes are typically linked with robust frontal systems. Forming and moving east in the Central States. Sometimes, with this sort of weather system, massive tornadoes are found. Many severe thunderstorms and tornadoes can strike several states.

During springtime and summer, a ‘dryline’ which divides a moist air mass from a dry air mass is crucial when forecasting severe weather. This is beacuse they can produce thunderstorms that can generate tornadoes.
Drylines usually set up north to south and are associated with large scale low pressure systems with a cold and warm front. When weather is severe, the dry line dictates what what places are ‘danger zones’ in the east and can enable us to determine where storms will come. Locations on the west of the dry line generally do not need to fear the impacts of severe weather.

The tropical storms and hurricanes that travel over land occasionally accompany the tornadoes. The most common tornadoes to the right and in front of the storm center route is onshore.

Colorado Tornado (David Blanchard)
Dr. Joseph Golden (NOAA)

Tornado Variations

  • In the early days of quickly building thunderstorms, some tornadoes may emerge. The most prevalent form of a tornado is in the Rocky Mountains, the Plains, and the Western States.
  • Until dust and debris are collected, tornadoes seem almost translucent.
  • Two or more tornadoes may strike simultaneously on occasion.


  • Tornadoes that originate over warm water are weak tornados.
  • The Gulf Coast and the southeastern states are the waterspouts most prevalent. In the West, cold late fall and late winter storms occur when tornado growth is less expected.
  • Occasionally, water flows continue inland to tornadoes that cause destruction and injury.

How Do Tornadoes Form?

Before storms occur, the air usually becomes very still and the wind dies down. This is usually followed by a loud roar. There may also be an approaching cloud of debris, particuarly at ground level.

Most tornadoes originate from thunderstorms. Cool dry air from Canada combined with Warm moist air from the gulf of mexico come together creating instability in the atmosphere. Changes in the direction of the wind and increases in height and speed produce a horizontal spin which is invisible. Rising air here tilts the rotation from horizontal to vertical.

A rising air tilts the rotating stand from horizontal to vertical in the thunderstorm updraft.

A 2-6 mile broad rotating region is currently covering many of the storms. In this area of intense rotation, the most powerful tornadoes form.

A lower cloud base in the middle of the picture denotes a revolving wall cloud region. Often this area is almost rainless. In the backdrop, notice rain.

Woodward OK (Ron Przybylinski)

At times afterwards in this location a violent tornado arises. Also with this storm occurred softball grass and destructive “straight line” winds.

Woodward OK (Ron Przybylinski)

Tornadoes Take Many Shapes and Sizes

Weak Tornadoes

  • 69% of all tornadoes
  • Less than 5% of tornado deaths
  • Lifetime 1-10+ minutes
  • Winds less than 110 mph

Strong Tornadoes

  • 29% of all tornadoes
  • Nearly 30% of all tornado deaths
  • May last 20 minutes or longer
  • Winds 110-205 mph

Violent Tornadoes

  • Only 2% of all tornadoes
  • 70% of all tornado deaths
  • Lifetime can exceed 1 hour
  • Winds greater than 205 mph

Tornado Myths

Myths: Tornadoes are safe in areas near rivers, seas, and mountains.
Fact: Tornadoes are not safe on land. In the late 1980s, a tornado went up and down a mountain 10,000 feet and crossed Yellowstone National Park.
Myth: The low tornado pressures “explode” buildings as the storm passes.
Fact: The most significant structural damage occurs. When violent winds and debris smash the buildings.
Myth: You should open the windows to reduce pressures and prevent damage. Before a tornado approaches.
Fact: Opening windows allows the structure to enter destructive winds. Just leave the windows alone and walk to a cellar, an inner room, or a bathroom without windows.

Tornadoes Occur Anywhere

Carolinas Outbreak

  • March 28, 1984, afternoon-evening
  • 22 tornadoes
  • 5
  • March 28, 1984, afternoon-evening
  • 22 tornadoes
  • 57 deaths
  • 1,248 injuries
  • damage $200 million
  • 37% of fatalities in mobile homes

Pennsylvania-Ohio Outbreak

  • May 31, 1985, late afternoon-evening
  • 41 tornadoes, including 27 in PA and OH
  • 75 deaths in U.S.
  • 1,025 injurie
  • May 31, 1985, late afternoon-evening
  • Forty-one tornadoes
  • Seventy-five deaths in the U.S.
  • 1,025 injuries
  • damage $450 million

Plains Outbreak

  • April 26-27, 1991, p.m of 26th to a.m of 27th
  • April 26-27, 1991, the afternoon of 26th through early morning 27th
  • 54 tornadoes
  • 21 deaths
  • 308 injuries
  • damage $277+ million
  • 15 deaths in/near mobile homes, two deaths in vehicles

Watching the Sky Weather Radar

The weather radar is used to notify meteorologists about storms. Doppler radars around the country may detect aviation traffic. To or from the National Weather Service (NWS) radar. Early identification of increased rotation in a thunderstorm can provide life-saving pre-tornado warnings.

Doppler Radial Velocity
Jim Ladue

Frequency of Tornado

  • At any time in the year, tornadoes can occur.
  • The peak tornado occurred in the southern states between March and May. Whereas peak months occur in the northern regions during the summer.
  • Note that a maximum secondary tornado occurs in several states in the autumn.
  • Tornadoes are most probable between 3 and 9 p.m., but are known to occur at all times of day and night.
  • The medium Tornado goes from southwestern to northeastern. However, it is known that tornadoes move in any direction. The average forward speed is 30 miles/h but maybe almost still to 70 miles/h.
  • The tornadoes are probably more numerous than the Western tornadoes. The population sparse decreases the report number

Peak tornado months

United States Totals 1961-1993

US tornadoes reported and average death number 1961-1993 each year

Be informed About tornado

Listen to the recent tornado WATCHES and WARNINGS. Through NOAA Weather Radio, commercial radio, and television.

  • When the weather is good, severe thunderstorms or tornado watches will be issued.
  • Weather Service staff use the weather radar, spotters, and other sources. To issue severe storm and tornado warnings in areas of approaching severe weather.
  • Severe thunderstorm warnings are transmitted to local radio and television stations. And transferred to the alerted regions by local NOAA Weather Radio stations. These alerts are also related to local emergency management officers. And public security officers able to trigger local alert systems to alert populations.

The best way of getting warnings from national weather service is NOAA WEATHER RADIO.

The NWS transmits up-to-date warnings and forecasts. That NOAA Weather Radios sold in many store areas can receive. Weather Service Depending on the topography, the typical range is 40 miles. You should purchase a radio that includes battery support. And a tonal warning feature. That automatically alerts you if a watch or warning is given.

For what to hear

  • TORNADO WATCH: in your location, tornadoes can be found. Remain warned about coming tempests.
  • TORNADO ATTENTION: A tornado was observed, or weather radar indicated. You can move to your preset safety spot if you receive a tornado warning and the sky becomes scary.
  • THUNDERSTORM SEVERE WATCH: In your location, serious thunderstorms can be found.
  • THUNDERSTORM SEVERE WARNING: Serious storms are taking place.
  • Recall that sometimes tornadoes emerge in locations. Where a severe thunderstorm watch or alert occurs. Keep warning of symptoms of an impending tornado. Also look for cover if conditions are extreme.

Environmental Clues

  • Dark, greenish sky commonly.
  • Cloud of the Wall
  • Wide Hail
  • Loud noise, like a cargo train


Several tornadoes appear just partially to the ground like a visible funnel. Find evidence of debris underneath the apparent funnel.

Alma, NE (Gene Rhoden)

Certain tornadoes are easily visible while others are covered by rain or low clouds in the vicinity.

Mike Emlaw

Often these threats go hand in hand with storms:ONE weather killer: Flash Floods: 146 deaths a year

Lightning: 75-100 individuals are killed per year

Damaging Straight-line Winds: 140 mph is possible

Large hail: can reach the grapefruit size, which yearly damages land and crops for several hundred million dollars

For a copy of the “Thunderstorms and Lightning” booklet (NOAA PA 92053) and the “Flash Floss and Flood. The awful power” pamphlet. Please get in touch with your local National Weather Service. American Red Cross chapter. Or Federal Emergency Management Agency (NOAA PA 92050).

Tornado Safety

Before storm

  • Develop a home, work, school and outdoor plans for you and your family.
  • Have frequent drills.
  • Know your county/parish and keep a road map in the vicinity to track the storm of weather.
  • Have a NOAA Weather Radio with a battery backup and a warning tone to get warnings.
  • Listen to information on radio and television.
  • Listen to the latest predictions and act when threats to the weather are possible. If plans for the excursion is outside
James Campbell; Bottom: Gene Rhoden

If an alert is issued or if the weather is scary

  • Ensure saftey
  • Move to a specific refuge in a house or building, for example a basement.
  • If there is no underground refuge. Move to an internal room or corridor at the lower floor.
  • Keep out of windows.
  • Get out of the automobiles.
  • Mobile homes offer no protection against tornados, even if tied down, and they should be abandoned.

Tornadoes can form very fast. Stay alert for indicators of a tornado approaching. Tornadoes flying debris causes most injuries and deaths.

Tornado Safety in Schools

Each school must have a plan!

  • Inspection of school shelter, Specified by a qualified engineer, or architect should develop a severe meteorological strategy and exercise frequently. The substrates provide the best protection. Indoor rooms and passageways on the lowest floor. Away from windows should be used in schools without cellars.
  • The weather information for NOAA Weather and local radio and TV should be monitored. By those responsible for activating the plan.
  • If electricity is the basis of the alarm system at the school. Use a compressed air horn or megaphone to activate the alert when power outage occurs.
  • In the event of damage to the school, make sure someone knows how to switch off electricity and gas.
  • If dangerous weather is forecast, keep students in school after regular hours. Children at school are safer than by vehicle or bus. When the terrible weather is approaching, students shouldn’t be sent home early.
  • Delays of lunches and assemblies in large rooms. In anticipation of severe weather. High schools, cafes and auditoriums offer no protection from tornado winds.

Development of a comparative plan for hospitals, hostels and other institutions

You may educate town authorities and the public about tornadoes risks. Through your National Weather Service and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. By learning to safely look for cover while at home, work, school or outdoors, you can prepare for a tornado. You also need to grasp fundamental meteorological conditions and tornado risk signs. Therefore, If you create a plan for you and your family, and rehearse the plan often. Your chances of being safe in a tornado are better.

Family plan for Tornado

All risks affecting their area must be prepared for families. Each family is urged to establish a family catastrophe plan by NOAA. The Fédéral Emergency Management Agency and the American Red Cross.
When a catastrophe happens, where will your family be? They might be wherever – at work, at school, or in the vehicle. How are you going to find yourself? You going to know whether your kids are safe? Disasters can compel you to leave or confine your area. If the basic services – water, gas, electricity or telephones – were cut off, what would you do?

To establish a family emergency plan, follow these essential steps…

Collect hazard information on Tornado

Talk to your local Weather Service. Civil Defense or Emergency Management and American Red Cross Chapter. Find out what kind of catastrophes might occur and how. Learn the warning signals and strategies of your community for moving away.

Meet your family to develop a plan.

Discuss your collected information. Select two meeting spots. An emergency area outside your home, such as a fire and a place distant from your neighborhood if you can’t come home. Choose an out-of-state buddy. For everybody to call if the family is separated from your ‘family check-in contact’. Discuss what to do if moving away is the solution.

Post phone numbers for emergencies. Inspect your home for potential risks such as anything that can move, fall, break, or fire) and remedy them;

Install safety elements in your home such as smoke alarms and fire extinguishers;

Firstly, teach your families how and when to call 911 or your local emergency health service number. Also, learn about basic safety measures such as CPR and first aid. How to use a fire extinguisher.

Keep in your home for at least three days enough goods to fulfill your demands. Also, pack the materials you may need in the event of an evacuation in a catastrophe supply kit.


A 3-day water supply. one gallon per person each day and food that does not spoil. Also, a change of clothes and shoes per person per day. One sleeping bag or blanket per person. A first-aid package with an NOAA powered NOAA Weather Radio and a portable radio. Flashlight and plenty of extra batteries, medicine emergency supplies. A set of additional car keys and a specific credit card or cash item for children. The elderly, or family members with disabilities.

IV. Practice and keep your schedule.
Finally, ask your family for questions to ensure that they recall places. Telephone numbers, and safety guidelines.

Featured Image Background Image by Comfreak from Pixabay

Sharks Attack: The odds of getting attacked

The chances of being attacked by a shark and being killed by one are 1 in 3,748,067. Fireworks (1 in 340,733), lightning (1 in 79,746), drowning (1 in 1,134), a car accident (1 in 84), stroke (1 in 24). or heart disease are all more likely to kill you in your lifetime (1 in 5). Every year, 70 to 100 shark attacks occur around the world, with 5 to 15 deaths.


Humans kill almost 100 million sharks each year.

COVID-19’s impact on the number of bites

According to the yearly summary. Published by the University of Florida’s International Shark Attack File. Shark attacks fell globally in 2020 for the third consecutive year. Compared to 64 in 2019 and 66 in 2018, to 57 unprovoked bites. The world average of the last five years has dropped to 80 occurrences each year.

In the past three years, worldwide shark attacks have declined. For example, 2017 estimated around 88 bites. Where as 2020 saw around 57.

The question remains if COVID-19 lockdowns and an abnormally low number of bites for a quiet year for tourism. Or whether the bumping represents the problem of collecting information during a pandemic.

sharks statistic

Image Source

What if you find a shark in the water?

Humans are not part of most sharks’ natural diet. Despite their frightening reputation, Sharks rarely attack humans prefering instead to prey on fish and marine mammals. Only a few dozen of the more than 300 shark species have been involved in human attacks.

  • Maintain a calm demeanor and avoid making unexpected moves.
  • Slowly make your way to the shore or a boat, whichever is closest.
  • While swimming, do not thrash your arms, kick, or splash.
  • Do not get in the way of the shark. If you’re between the shark and the open water, get out of the way.

A History of Shark Attacks

Notable Attack

Shirley Ann Durdin

Plunged to Australia’s Peake Bay in 1985, when she was attacked by a white shark around 20 feet long. The colossal fish hit the 33-year-old halfway during his first strike. While her husband and four kids watched the coast in fear. When the savior came, her decapitated corpse was floating in the sea. The Sharp then returned consuming the rest of her body.

Jersey Shore attacks

During the fatal war wave of 1916, four people were murdered. During a spate of attacks on the shore of New Jersey in the US. Charles Vansant, the first victim, 25, died after the sharks had torn the skin of his thigh. When he was taking swimming early in the evening. Five days later, after a shark was gunned down in his abdomen. Charles Bruder, who was 27, was shot and broke his legs when he went off Spring Lake beach.

Six days later, at Matawan Creek, the last attacks took place on 12 July. A 12 year-old was pulled beneath while sprinkling with friends at the stream. Stanley Fisher, 24 years old jumped in to find Stillwell but was bitten by the shark himself. Two days later, 150 feet upstream, the mutilated body of the 12-year-old was found.

Types of attacks

Provoked Attack

Human beings touching sharks trigger provoked attacks. This often requires removing or unhooking sharks from fishing nets. Nevertheless, cases involving divers being attacked after a shark was grabbed or fed while underwater.

Unprovoked attacks

Unprovoked attacks occur when first contact is made by the sharks. Three forms can be taken:


These are attacks close to beaches when sharks try to harvest live fish. They can mistake human motions. Generally on the surface, for those of their natural diet. Fish, via surfing, strong currents and turquoise water. The fish picks up, releases and departs the area quickly. Legs or feet are commonly bitten; injuries are generally mild and fatalities are rare.

Bump-and-Bite Attacks

Attacks occur when the sharks circle and actually bump the victim. Before biting with their head or body. The shark may strike repeatedly and cause severe harm or death as in the sneak attack.

Reasons for attacks

Sharks are known to attack people if they are confused or curious. A shark might attempt to examine a human being splashing in the water. That causes an unintentional attack. Nevertheless, sharks have to dread human beings more than we do.

Shark Species most involved in incidents

Tiger sharks

Unprovoked tiger shark attacks are slightly larger than bull sharks’ attacks. As of April 2021, 131 attacks, including 34 deaths, were committed by the tiger sharks. Whereas 117 attacks were carried out, which led to 25 fatalities.

Blacktip Sharks

42 reported attacks by blacktip sharks on people have been place. However only one result has been in an unprovoked fatality. Although saltwater is normally preferred by blacktips. The mouths, blands. Mangrove swamps and in another estuaries are often observed close to the shore.

Hammerhead Sharks

The #1 threat for all Hammerhead Shark species is human beings. Human attacks are very infrequent. Only three of the 9 Hammerhead species have ever attacked a human. (Great, Scalloped, and Smooth Hammerheads). These sharks are safer for divers in open seas most of the time.

Great White Shark

In the history of California. There have been just 99 unprovoked attacks by sharks.

Bull Shark

The statistics for the bull shark are quite amazing. This shark has already been one of the three most dangerous sharks. By a total of 121 assaults including 25 unspecific fatal attacks.

Sharks Attack Prevention

How to avoid sharks

  • Do not swim alone and stay close to the shore.
    Do not swim in the dawn or te dark.
  • Don’t go swimming or fishing around fishing schools.
  • Avoid using jewelry.
  • Avoid splashing excessively.

Sharks Barrier

The Shark barriers function on the concept that sharks are excluded from a defined swimming area. The barriers are considered to be an environmentally acceptable solution, since they eliminate bycatch in large numbers. However the same region as the slaughter techniques cannot be protected.

Sharks Nets

The Shark Nets reduce the amount of resident sharks. Most effectively since these sharks are more likely to meet the net over time. They don’t prohibit sharks from entering or leaving the shore. They work by enclosing sharks which by accident swim in.

Sharks Drum Lines

Drum lines are usually used alongside shark nets in order to kill sharks. SMART drum lines may be used to relocate sharks. This significantly lowers death of the fish and bycatch. Drum lines have been used successfully to reduce shark attacks.

Featured Image source : Sea photo created by wirestock –

The Ultimate Guide to Emperor Penguins

Emperor penguins are the highest and heaviest species in the Antarctic and indigenous. The plumages and sizes of the males and females are comparable in length and weigh up to 100 cm.

Emperor Penguins

Image Source

Where does the name emperor penguin come from?

It is named after the German scientist Johann Reinhold Forster. He was accompanied on his second journey by Captain James Cook. They formally identified five additional penguin species.

Biology of an emperor penguin

The biggest marine birds in the Antarctic are emperor penguins, measuring 101-132 cm. They have 76-89 cm wing spans. The black and White bodies of these penguins are steep black.

They’re black in their back, head, chin, throat and back. They are entirely white up to their necks on their bottoms and ventral surfaces. They have orange and yellow auricular (ear-area) patches that fade to their shoulders.

This yellow becomes white towards the top of the breast. Their heads and breasts are likewise orange and yellow. Emperor penguins have lengthy black beaks along their lower mandibles, and pinkish orange stripes. As adults, Emperor penguins weigh between 25 and 45 kg. During mating and feeding seasons they quickly acquire and lose weight. Women tend to weigh 18 kg lower on average than men.

Special adaptations to the cold

Emperors are exceedingly isolated in the shape of multiple levels of scalable plumes — winds (above 60 knots or approximately 110 kilometers per hour) take very long to sweep them away. They have tiny notes and pinpoints to maintain heat in relation to their total size.

Physical features

Around the head, neck and breast, the adults are colored black & white with orange and yellow patches. Some of these species may grow to over 130 cm tall and weigh between 25-45 kg and roughly 50 inches (55 to 100 pounds). Their plumage, pale white to light gray feathers in place of those colored orange and yellow, is identical to that of the adults. The dimly feathers are silver-gray on the body of the chicks. Although the plumbing around the eyes is white, it is black in the rest of the skull. The Emperor Penguin closely resembles the King Penguin, a smaller species living on few remote Antarctic islands.

How fast can emperor penguins move?

For emperors the greatest speed is at 2.8 kph is (1.7mph). Emperor penguins, slide on ice on their bellies. The emperor penguins swim 14.4 kph (8.9 mi/h) however usually they do not surpass 10.8 kph (6.7 mph).

Interesting Behaviors of an Emperor Penguin

Emperor penguins are the world largest penguins. They can dive deeper than any bird, including any other Penguin. Emperor  Penguins do not construct nests. Rather, they operate as the nests of their feet and their brood patches.

Do emperor penguins socialize?

Emperor penguins are renowned for their collaboration in foraging. They share a great deal of behavior with other Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic species. A group of penguins is called a “raft” during sea time. Penguins establish huge colonies on land, though.

With humans, they’re extremely friendly. The major predators of the pinguin (seals, sea lions, whales and sharks) all live in the water. So they feel more safer on land, for the better or for bad, among researchers and visitors.


One of nature’s great survivors are Emperor Penguins. They can withstand the cool cold of the winter in Antarctica. If temperatures fall to or below -20°C. They huddle together in close-knit groups to keep the heat. They protect themselves from the severe winds in order to prevent them from freezing to death.

Locations of the Emperor Penguin

Emperor Penguin’s colonies lie in regions blocked by ice most of the year in South Antarctica.

Conservation status

Although Antarctic Penguins are not listed as endangered. Emperor Penguins are almost threatened. Meaning that they will soon shift to a threatened category. Macaroni and southern rockhopper penguins are classified fragile. Meaning, if present risks persist, they are in danger of extinction.

How many emperor penguins are there today?

In Antarctica there are around 595,000 mature Penguins of the Emperor. However, we don’t know too much about these amazing arctic species because of a dearth of study. This is why, because the more we know, the better we can preserve research in the Antarctic

The Emperor Penguin: Life Cycle

While in Antarctica emperors do not dwell in their courtyards. They have life cycles, or phases from an egg to a chick, and eventually an adult as the birds you see every day.

How long do emperor penguins live?

Emperor Penguins have a life range of 15 to 20 years in the wild, with males sometimes living up to 50 years old. Research, however, indicates that just 1% of penguins reach this age. Captive penguins are 20 to 34 years old.

Family Life

During each mating season, emperor penguins are monogamous and choose only one partner. The next year is usually a different mate, although some pairings decide again to create a relationship. The female passes the egg to the male around May or June when the egg is hatched.

Reproduction and Parenting

A female emperor’s penguin takes one ovum to the top of the foot of her partner. The female goes to sea to feed as the male incubates the egg. Some weeks later, generally just before the egg is due to hatch, she comes back to relieve her partner so he may feed

Predators and prey

Killer Whales, Leopard Seals and the Giant Petrel are prey to emperors. Leopard Seal is the most harmful predator, who may have 15 penguins per day, however they generally only capture the ill and the weak ones. Usually healthy penguins can out swim a Leopard Seal.

What do Emperor Penguins eat?

Emperors primarily eat on Antarctic silverfish and other fish, krill (like Happy Feet Will&Bill) and squid. An adult penguin consumes around 2-3 kg a day, although they may eat twice as much on a good day to grow body fat in their long winter or nourish them.


The emperors are the biggest, with an average of about 45 inches in height. These flyless creatures dwell in the cold seas and on Antarctic ice. Killer Whales, Leopard Seals and the Giant Petrel are prey to emperors. Leopard Seal is the most harmful predator. Emperor Penguins have a life range of 15 to 20 years for the wild, although some researches have shown that men are up to 50 years old. Research, however, indicates that just 1% of penguins reach this age. Captive penguins are 20 to 34 years old.

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Cool facts about bugs and insects

Cool facts about bugs and insects. For roughly 350 million years insects and people have been present and for 300 000 years only. One quarter of all known plant and animal species are beetles. More bugs than all plants exist. Blow flies are the first type of bug attracted after death to an animal carcass

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Cool facts about bugs

You will discover one ,or hundreds, of these wonderful creatures wherever you turn. The Insect class comprises a vastly diversified group of Aunts, Bees, Flies, Beets, etc.

Below are some of the cool facts about bugs

Bugs possesses brains!

Bugs and insects possess tiny little brain’s inside their tiny little bodies. What may surprise some people, is that dotted across there little bodies, is little brains commonly reffered to as ‘ganglia’. These not only aid with feeding, but also enable them to sense danger faster. Importantly, their brains help keep them safe!

Do bugs and Insects feel pain ?

Research indicates that, in comparison to vertebraes such as mamals, fish, amphibians, birds and reptiles. Insects most likely do not feel pain due to a lack of pain receptors. However, they may feel irritation and may be able to tell if they have been physically compromised in some shape or form. However, 18 years ago researchers found that some insects, particularly fruit flies, can feel something similar to pain. This is known as ‘nociception’. This occurs when they are exposed to extreme temperatures, both hot and cold. Addittionlly, it occurs when exposed to a physical threat.

You get bugs from the scent of your ears.

Although frightening and unusual spending, bugs may enter and remain in your ears for a couple of days. For instance, cockroaches are drawn to the smell from your ears and crawl in as you sleep. Once the insect is inside the ear, caution must be taken and professional advice sought. This is due to the risk of pushing the roach or bug further down the ear canal. This can be an annoying and sometimes painful experience.

Aquatic bugs that breathe via their stomachs are water boatmen.

It is also known as a wonderful beetle for diving. One of the fascinating facts is that they have to breathe on the water surface exactly like other insects. But they have this clever technique that lets them stay for a long time in the water. They hang up their bodies and gather air via their abdomen like a respiratory tract. When their supply becomes gone, they rise to the surface.

For millions of years cockroaches were here

One of the oldest families of insects are that of cockroaches. Often reffered to as indestructible, fossils indicate they’ve been present for about 300 million years.

Butterflies are not pleased with pesticides

Butterflies are highly vulnerable to pesticides so that you do not use them in your garden. Pesticides are killing insects, therefore don’t use insecticides if you want butterflies. … Do not apply to butterflies, bees or others and do not apply to open flowers.

Bugs may dwell in any place

In fact, over 97 percent of insects dwell on the ground. Many insects, including bees and caterpillars, spend their whole existence on land. (Which of course become moths or butterflies). However, in fresh water some insects dwell. Life starts on dragonflies in water like rivers, lakes and lakes, but later as adults they get into the air..

Not every bug must feed in its lifetime

The biggest of its type are titanium beetles, yet they are unharmful and tender giants. Usually titanium larvae feed on wood that declines in the ground, then they become adults a few weeks later. The male does not feed during his adult life, but needs some energy to fly.

Send bananas, avocados and mangoes good-bye without bats.

More than 300 fruit species are pollinated by bats. Bats are the primary component of chocolate and help disperse seeds for nuts, feet, and cacao. We wouldn’t also have plants like agave or the famous saguaro cactus without bats.

Ladybugs are talismans of luck

Ladybugs are said to be luck talismans. Some people think you must count the number of spots when a ladybug landed on you to forecast how many happy years you’ll be. Many believe that the places represent the number of months until your biggest wish is fulfilled.

Pillbugs are harmless bugs.

Pillbugs are like shrimps, or armadillidiidae. They have additionally gills that can breathe. Usually in humid regions you can locate them. They are harmless, because they are neither stinging, biting or disease-carrying. It can injure the roots of plants during feeding, but nothing is harmed outside that.

You may benefit from bug stings

Bees are bugs that utilize sting when attacked. It’s absolutely innocuous more often than not. Indeed, if they sting humans – they die, it’s bees that are suffering. However, investigations have shown that bee venom has been utilized to cure illnesses. This illness includes arthritis, sclerosis and tendinitis.

Bugs possesses strong wings

Insects might be vulnerable and tiny animals, yet they are constructed of strong materials in their body parts and their wings. They consist of cuticles, the second most prevalent and strongest natural substance in the planet. Insects may develop feathers, but bugs have no luxury. When necessary. When damaged wings are brought, they have to live with them for the rest of their lives and mostly these bugs survive and live with them successfully. One of the most incredible insect facts, definitely.

Devil bugs have mighty jaws

It is difficult to distinguish one from the other with all of the insect species in the globe, but devil bugs are distinctive from the others. This species, sometimes known as the Devil’s Coach-Horse beetle, belongs to the rove beetle family. While most bugs are typically safe, devil bugs can be scorpive and violent if disturbed or provoked. It opens its powerful jaws and raises its rear ends to expel a flawless liquid from its belly. They’re also painful and may do it again and over again.

Phylliidae bugs are insects that resemble leaves

These walking leaves or existing leaf insects are also known as leaf bugs. They are the most impressive imitations of leaf and camouflages in the animal realm. They cover themselves and remove their leaves. So precisely that they are identified as genuine leaves by waiting predators. Some of these species also mislead their predators by rocking back and forth in imitating the leaves blown by the wind’s scent. This is is one of today’s most astounding bug facts

House flies eat vomits

We dislike the sight of this insect’s houseflies and cousins. One thing you ought to know is that there are no mouths to bite food or to chew. They use their feet to taste anything at all. They vomit to assist break up the meal in little particles, when they find food tasty. The vomit then enables flies to swallow the vomit using their tongues and finally receive nutrients in the meal

Some ants willingly explode when challenged

When their nests are assaulted, the explosive ants destroy themselves. They accomplish this by dividing and opening their skin so that the adversaries are coated with a yellow sludge. This distracts the attention of the opponent that might prevent or kill an assailant. These fourths are “the food.” They are the little laborers of the ant colony that sacrifice themselves. One of the most intriguing details about the bug.

Ladybugs are good for your garden

One of the least recognized truths about the bug is that not every single insect is a threat. This can be true in an uncontrolled number. But did you know ladybugs might do your garden wonders? They eat on insects to defend your property against fruit flies, pest damage, and mites.

June bugs in June are most common.

June bugs have their name because in June, they generally occur in large swarm amounts. You hide in the daylight among the woods and in a swarm, which generally is at night, in early summer. These beetles are ideal treatments for pet lizards and toads.

Japanese bugs raise their legs to frighten intruders

They are widespread across Asia, Canada, the USA and Europe. They dwell in hidden courtyards. That is why when crops are in great quantities, they tend to be harmful. Japanese bugs are bad fliers yet they can accomplish at least 5 kilometers in one go if nothing interrupts them. They raise their back legs to scare the predator when they feel assaulted

June Bugs are known as fly beetles

Flying beetles are the biggest Coleoptera and Beetle species in the world. Commonly referred to as ladybugs or lightning-bugs. It is unusual for them to morsel and, if so. It is usually dangerous unless the individual has an allergy to the afflicted person. One of the most intriguing things about insect is that it flies like superheroes. It could appear like it is levitating, as its extended legs are high. That position permits them to twist and twist


Cool facts about bugs and insects.The vast open air is the place of the sun and the flowers. It is wonderful to spend the day out in the sun while reading a book or after a difficult week resting. However, because of mosquitoes and pests, others choose to spend their days indoors. Some are vulnerable to allergy and we all have too overpowering misunderstandings to ignore.

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Science fair projects for kids

Science fair projects for kids are one of the favorite teaching methods. These activities are all easy to try for anyone, and you have virtually all the things you need. Select a handful of your favorites to start the fun of science!

Easy Science Fair Projects

Construct a water clock

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Big, clean plastic bottle
Drawing pin
Marking pen
Food colouring

First step

To start, measure approximately halfway through the bottle, split the bottle into two with the scissors gently. So ask an adult to help. It may be difficult.

Second step

Now, screw off the top of the bottle with the drawing pin and make a small hole there – ask an adult to help. Then place the lid on the flask again.

Third step

Next turn upside down the top half of the bottle and insert it in the lower half, so that the top of the bottle goes down.

Fourth step

Now, blend a few drops of food in a pint of water, then get your stopwatch ready!

Fifth step

Pour the water into the bottle top and then begin the time. Mark a line at the bottom bottle water level every time one minute goes by.

Sixth step

Once the entire water has gone into the bottom, add the water back to the top half and count as the water pours down for a few minutes. Clever!

Test PH using cabbage

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First step

Peel off three or four large cabbage leaves and place them in a mixer full of water. Mix the ingredients together until the cabbage juice is purple.

Second step

Pour the purplish cabbage juice through a strainer. To sift out all of the huge bits of cabbage. Keep the liquid for the tests to follow.

Third step

Set the glasses out side by side, three glasses. Fill every glass with cabbage juice, for about three fourths.

Fourth step

In the first glass of cabbage juice, add a little vinegar. Add a spoon and note that the vinegar is classified as acid. Which means the hue changes into red. When combined with cabbage juice, all acids become red.

Fifth step

Add a teaspoon of soda or detergent in the second glass. Notice how the liquid becomes green and this chemistry is a base.

Sixth step

For future reference, preserve two glasses of red (acid) and green (base). To illustrate a neutral solution hue, fill in the third glass of purple cabbage juice.

Result analysis

The result for this science fair projects. Certain materials are classed as an acid or as a base. Conversely, acids and base– acids have a low pH while bases have a high pH. Water (neutral) is referenced to have a pH of 7 at 0-14 scales. By means of an indicator, scientists can determine if a chemical is an acid or a bases. Typically, an indicator is a colour-changing chemical in which an acid or a base comes into contact.

The purple cabbage juice, as you can see, changes red when it blends with acid and turns green when mixed with bases. Red cabbage juice is regarded an indication. As it demonstrates something about other components’ chemical composition.

What does the cold lead to? What is it? A water-soluble pigment, anthocyanine, is found in the red solution which changes its color when treated with an acid or bases. In acidic settings, the pigment turns red with a pH of less than 7 whereas the pigment is bluish-green with a pH of more than 7.

Baking Soda and Vinegar Volcano

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  • 10 millimeter of dishing soap
  • 100 millimeter of warm water
  • 400 millimeter of white vinegar
  • Coloring for food
  • Baking soda slurry (fill a cup about half with baking soda, then fill the remainkng baking soda with water)
  • Empty 2ltrs soda bottle

First step

In the empty soda bottle, add vinegar, water, soap and 2 drops of food coloring

Second step

Use a spoon to stir the slurry of the baking soda until everything is liquid.

Third step

Eruption time! Pour the slurry of baking soda into the bottle of soda fast and step back!

Result analysis

This amazing science fair projects explains. “A chemical reaction is caused by a gas known as carbon dioxide between vinegar and baking soda. Carbon dioxide is the same type of gas that is used to produce soda carbonation. What if you mix a soda up? The gas is becoming highly excited and is attempting to spread. There is insufficient space in the bottle to disperse the gas, and hence it leaves very fast via the opening and causes a eruption!”

Extract DNA from an onion science fair projects


  • an onion;
  • 100 millimeter of a solution of meat tenderizer. (0.05 grams / millimeter water) and dishwashing liquid (0.01 millimeter / millimeter water);
  • 50 millimeter 95 % ethanol stored in the freezer or on in ice;
  • ice bath;
  • cheese cloth;
  • glass stirring rod;
  • five test tubes;
  • 250, 500 and 1000 millimeter beakers;
  • blender;
  • scale;
  • water bath @ 60º C;
  • stopwatch.


Step 1: Chop the onion. Chop the onion.

Step 2: In a 250 mL beaker, add the meat tenderizing solution (100 ml), and heat to 60°C in a bath of water.

Step 3: In the meat tenderizer solution, add 50 g chopped oignon. Remove and let settle at 60oC for 15 min.

Step 4: Remove the beaker from the bath and put it on ice for 5 minutes immediately.

Step 5: Give the blender mixture.
a) Mix for 45 seconds at low speed and stop.

b) Mix for 30 seconds at high speed and stop.

Step 6: Put the mixture in four pans folded and covered with a 500 ml beaker, already on ice.
Squeeze the filter off slowly.

Result analysis

When the stringy material bubbles out of solution (the DNA), the glass rod in the test tube is twisted gently to collect the DNA. It can now be used to test or manipulate genes.

Marvel at a density rainbow science fair projects

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  • Sugar
  • Water
  • Food coloring
  • Tablespoon
  • 5 glasses or clean cups (glasses)


First step

The first step for this science fair projects. Line up five glasses. To the Five glasses. Add to the first glass 1 table cube (15 g) sugar, 2 tablespoons (30 g) of sugar to the second glass. 3 tablespoons (45 g) of sugar to the third and 4 sugar cubes (60 g) to the fourth glass. The fifth glass should be empty.

Second ate

In each of the first four cups, add 3 tablespoons (45 ml) of water. Stirs each of the solution. Add one tablespoon (15 ml) additional to each of the four glasses if the sugar does not dissolve in any of the four glasses.

Third step

Add 2-3 droplets of the first glass of food coloring to the red food. The second glass of yellow food coloring. The third glass of green food coloring and the fourth glass of blue food coloring. Stir the whole solutions.

Fourth step

Now let us use the varied density solutions to produce a rainbow. Fill about a quarter of the blue sugar solution with the last glass.

Fifth step

Lay a little green sugar over the blue liquid carefully. Put the spoon in the glass slightly above the blue layer and slowly pour the green solution over the spoon back. You won’t affect the blue solution much if you do this appropriately. Add green until the glass is approximately halved.

Sixth step

Now lay the yellow solution on the back of the spoon, above the green liquid. Three-quarters full, fill the glass.

seventh step

Finally, overlay the yellow liquid with the red solution. Fill the remaining glass.

Crystal easter egg science fair project

  • An egg
  • 1 cup of hot water
  • 4 tablespoons of alum
  • A pin or a needle
  • Food coloring (not compulsory)
  • String (not compulsory)
  • Cup


First step

Put into a glass 1 cup of boiling water.

Second step

Remove in 4 alum tablespoons. Continue to whisk until the alum is dissolved.

Third step

Add a few drops of food coloring if you want colorful crystals. The eggshell is easy to collect colour, so that a little color goes a long way.

Fourth step

Place the egg in the glass and cover it entirely with liquid. You must plunge the egg into it until air bubbles escape, or if your egg is bleeding, you must plunge it in. If you like, a pipe-cleaner or string may be used to suspend the hollowed egg.

Fifth step

Allow for crystal development for many hours. When the crystals are satisfied, take the egg, hang it, or put it on a towel of paper and let it dry.

Blow out a candle with a baloon

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First step

Blow up a ballon like you would normally and knot it off.

Second step

Put in the center of the table a lighted candle.

Third step

Put your safety glasses since the ballon will be popped. Keep a foot or two of the balloon above the top of the flame and bring it steadily closer and closer to the fire until it is burning. Before the heat dissolve latex and ballon bursts you will see the flame does not even contact the ball. Just say that you have to prove what you know already.

Fourth step

Let us repeat the experiment, except this time there’s a layer of water inside the ballon’s floor.

Combine the balloon with water to the top – it probably carries a few ounces, which is 60 mL for you scientists – then blow it in the air thereafter. If you let the ball fly by mistake before you tie it down,

You and your pals are going to spray themselves

It’s going to adore. Tie the balloon and prepare yourself for the next move.

Fifth step

Keep the ball water-filled up and gently drop it over the candle, and see how people start running. All of you know it’s going to pop, but it doesn’t for some odd reason. You can really enable the flames to contact the floor of the ball if you’re extremely daring, but they still don’t burst.

Sixth step

Remove the heat from the ball and check the soot in the base carefully. Yes, there’s soot, but it didn’t come from the balloon. Try to find out why the water layer stopped the ball from popping before reading the explanation.

Result analysis

Water is an excellent heat soaker. The tiny latex balloon makes it possible to heat the water very fast and hot. As it heats up next to the flame, it starts to rise and it is replaced by cooler water on the ballon bottom. This colder water then absorbs more heat and continues the process. Actually, the water exchange occurs so regularly that it stops the ball from popping. It takes the heat of the flame until it is higher than the heat of the waters to remove the latex from the ball. But watch out! But watch out! If you turn the ball such that the flame of the candle is on the side of the water, the ball pops because the water is there

Make a simple Newton cradle

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  • Jumbo Craft Sticks
  • (6) Marbles
  • String
  • Scissors
  • Glue
  • Tape
  • Pencil
  • Hot Glue Gun/Glue


First step

Glue (4) craft sticks to form a square at the corners. Repeat with four additional sticks of crafts. Let it dry. Let it dry.

Second step

Cut string into six equal pieces approximately 8inches long

Third step

Marble hot stick to the middle of one of the string sections. Repeat to end with (6) distinct marbles, each of which is attached to the string center.

Fourth step

Make (6) sticks with two 1⁄2″ crafts. Ensure that the markings are focused on the sticks.

Fifth step

Tape one end of strings of marbles tied to each mark along one of the craft sticks. Set aside, set aside.

Sixth step

Assemble the frame with hot glue. Make a craft stick perpendicular to each corner on both sides and hot glue.

Seventh step

Clebe the craft stick on one side of the frame with the taped string/marbles.

Eight steps

Stick on the other side of the frame to the second designated craft stick.

Ninth step

Ape with a marble connected to the designated craft stick on the free end of each thread. Tighten the strings carefully to ensure that the strings are aligned. When viewed from above, the marbles must line up both horizontally.

Drop an egg to prove the first law of motion


First step

To execute the demonstration, use a robust table or counter surface. Fill the glass with water and position the pastry pot over the glass for about three quarters. Put the cardboard tube on the cake pan vertically, putting it over the water immediately. Put the egg on top of the carton tube carefully.

Second step

Explain to your audience that it is the aim of getting the egg into the water glass, but that you cannot touch the egg, the carboard tube, or the water glass. All you have to touch is the pastry bowl. What should you do to remove the pie pan and the carton tube to get the egg to the glass of water? This is true. Sir Isaac Newton’s First Law of motion will be invoked and the pie pan will be swept off the way . Read the following step. Don’t do it yet.

Third step

Just stand behind the Egg Drop configuration. If you’re right, just hold your right hand like you would karate anything. Place your hand around 6 centimeters from the pan edge. The goal is to whack with enough power the edge of the pie pot to knock the carton tube out of the egg. The rest takes place, as the egg straight falls into the water glass.

Result analysis

Sir Isaac Newton and his First Motion Law. He must be credited for science fair projects. Newton argued that moving objects desire to go, and stationary objects want to remain – until an external force acts on them. So, because the egg doesn’t move when it rests above the tube, it doesn’t go moving. You put enough power into the pastry pot to get it out of the carton tube. (there isn’t much friction between the pan’s surface and the water container). The edge of the pastry pot grabbed the lower part of the tube and flew with the pot.


We hope that the scientific fair projects here will encourage them to have fun, study science, and at the same time be creative whether your child has never taken part in the science fair or is an old pro.

Science fair projects for kids, learn about space!

Space books for kids

Space books for your kids. Join us on a voyage through the universe as with these space-themed novels we rocket to the stars. These books will illuminate imaginations. It will spark curious minds into infinity and beyond. From fictions or photo books to older readers’ books.

Space books for kids(2-5 years)

Unlocking the Universe by Stephen and Lucy Hawkings (2020)

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Reading age: 2-5(years)

Scientist Stephen Hawking and his daughter Lucy. They offer you the secret to unlocking the world’s riddles. This beautifully illustrated guide to non-fiction answers questions. From ‘Is there Mars Life?’ to ‘What is within a black hole?’ to ‘. What are you to do when robots are taking over the world?’ Don’t ever go across time and space without it. If you have true facts like climate change, conspiracy theories and walking on the moon.

Buy the book

Goodnight Spaceman

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Reading age: 2-5(years)

Inspired by Tim Peake. British astronaut for the first time in office. Goodnight Spaceman sees two young men rocketing from their beds on an intergalactic visit to their dad in space. This photo book is ideal for astronomical bedtime. With beautiful pictures by Nick East, entertaining rhymes and an out-of-the-world journey.

Buy the book

You Choose In Space

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Reading age: 2-5(years)

Take a space suit and put on your helmet – a space voyage. From what a strange friend to what clothes you wear. Also what odd meals you have for lunch, all your choices are – and the options are unlimited.! Each children’s imagination is sent to the sequel to the best sells You Choose.

Amazing books age 6-12

The Dinosaur that Pooped a Planet!

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Reading age: 7-12 (years)

McFly band members Tom Fletcher and the Dougie Poynter series. The Dinosaur that Pooped enchanted and appalled world readers. But is now being taken by the Earth’s greediest dinosaur in the wind. In the dinosaur that has pooped a world! Danny and Dinosaur sail to the Moon. But if he gets as hungry a Dinosaur is eating his rocket. They must devise a pooptastic plan for returning to Earth.

Buy the book

Space books for kids age 5-9

Counting on Katherine

Reading age: 5-9(years)

Katherine Johnson was a mathematical genius. He helped make the landing of the Moon of Apollo 11 feasible. Katherine was interviewed for this book in particular by writer Helaine Becker. Young Katherine, a curious boy with a passion of counting. He wanted to discover all about the cosmos. This is an incredible account by an African-American woman from her infancy. As a gifted student through her courageous job in NASA.

Buy the book

Astronaut in Training

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Reading age: 5-9(years)

When your youngster grows up. It is the appropriate book for them if it wishes to be an astronaut in life. Astronaut in training offers you all you need to know about space. Astronomy and what is actually like at the International Space Station. Full of funny facts about the life of an astronaut and plenty of activities.

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Space Poems

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Reading age: 5-9(years)

This fantastic book is greatly liked by small space lovers. It is based on poetry by Paul Cookson, John Rice, Liz Brownlee and many others. The space poetry are packed with many poems about the moon. The stars and planets, aliens, the Molky Way and even the space sheds.

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Space: The Whole Whizz-Bang Story

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Reading age: 5-9(years)

This humorous and educational book. It will assist to address all those burning space questions that little ones may have. What is a black hole? How are stars and planets different? How do we know millions of years old galaxies? Space: The Whole Whizz-Bang Story does not feature any boring bits full of doodles and unbelievable facts!

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Cool space books for youngsters

The Sun Is Kind of A Big Deal

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Reading age: 3-7(years)

Cartoonist and creator of Awkward Yeti, Nick Seluk. Told the audience why for billions of years, sun was a monthly employee. It tells how the Sun keeps Earth warm. How the Sun affects our Solar System by day and by night. Not surprisingly, Jupiter wants the autograph from Sun.

Buy the book

Our Solar System

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Reading age: 3-7(years)

The American Museum of Natural History. Peter and Connie Roop have prepared a basic introduction to the outside space for children. By the winners of almost a century of children’s books.

Buy the book

Little Kids (First Book of Space)

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Reading age: 3-7(years)

The First Space book. Atypical national geographical book full of facts. It was written for preschoolers in grade 3. This book starts with the explanation of, and its effect on, the sun and moon on our planet. In the first chapter that looks from the earth.The chapters then deal with planets. Others including dwarf planets, traveling from the earth to the Milky Way, galaxies and space travel.

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Space movie for kids 0-3(years)

ABCs of space

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Reading age: 0-3(years)

This book is a good gift to a space lover with a newborn. Not meant for babies. But offers a bright board-book style for parents to read in while providing the baby an experience to read.

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8 little planets

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Reading age: 0-3(years)

A board book including focused cuts brings readers of Neptune to the Sun. With adorable planets, lunares, and stars on the outer edge of the solar system. There are two page copies of each planet on each page. The first pair expresses concern about the uniqueness of the planet—is Uranus’ s side curious? Is Mars too poisonous? But this second pair resolves the stress. Saying the planet is pleased of its qualities: “It’s very cool to be the coldest!” for Uranus and “Here’s the highest peak on any planet!” for Mars.

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Launch ladies

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Reading age: 0-3(years)

This space books for kids. It illustrate how Launch Ladies offers vivid cartoon works. By Jerrie Cobb, Mary Jackson, Katherine Johnson, Barbara Paulson, Margaret Hamilton, Nancy Roman, Christine Darden, Mae Jemison, Kalpana Chawla, and Marleen Martinez. As a further good gift to parents of a newborn. “Engineer and mathematician Mary Jackson has developed flight paths for the Mercury mission,” says each page. The contents are for the grownups but for babies in their laps are the photos and rhythms of a reading-aloud book.

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Space movie for kids grade 3

A moon of my own

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Reading age: Grade 3

For the roaming world youngster. Harold and the Purple Crayon. Clever pictures accompany a girl from the Eiffel Tower to the Rainforest Amazonia. She is charming and lively around the world, exhibiting many phases of the moon. Pre-school grade 3 best for: 3.

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Zelda big adventure

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Reading age: grade 3

The first chicken in space. Zelda is determined to be. She receives no aid with her preparedness as in the classic renditions of The Little Red Hen. Yet, her great dream is not to be given up. Pre-school grade 3 best for: 3.

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Reading age: grade 3

When the Astroid “personal outside space” of a rogue satellite violates it and strikes it out of orbit, it causes havoc in the cosmos.

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The darkest dark

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Reading age: grade 3

The Apollo 11 Moon is being broadcast as a child in a hushed. Captivating memoir. Astronaut Chris Hadfield weaves Chris adjusted his historic event. To give him the confidence to follow through on his ambition of a “Darkest Darkness” explorer.

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Magaret and the moon

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Reading age: grade 3

Heroes may wear pencil skirts and eye specs that are over-sized. Everyone wants to be superstar of NASA computer programmers with this biography.

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Astronaut handbook

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Reading age: grade 3

“Welcome to the School of Astronauts!” This book covers everything that leads to blast off, from how to be a team member to learning on the Vomit Comet.

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Thoughts of space voyages are enticing for inquiring small minds. It’s no surprise that when we ask them what they want when they are awake. They reply so often, an astronaut! Above are some of the best space books for kids from writers like astronaut Chris Hadfield. To books packed of information that will even wow the more inquisitive kids.